Vuosaari (Helsinki) – Jyvaskyli – Vuosaari (Helsinki) 


Range Extender Long Haul

Vehicle group: 12 of VECTO


  1. Vehicle & Component: Range-extended battery- fuel cell HDV (rHDV) demonstrator with battery, FC and H2 tanks via co-design approach. 
  2. Logistics: Industrial short-range, regional mid-range, long-haul end-use cases 
  3. Charging concepts: Fast charging at long haul end points, H2 refilling once per roundtrip. 

Specific Challenge: Demonstration of a flexible 40t r-HDV prototype for regional & long-haul use cases with a single refill and charge. Two-staged development process (industrial and on-road) to validate the r-HDV prototype.

Demonstrator Vehicle: SISU r-HDV demonstrator vehicle. 

 Proposed Technical Solutions

  1. Serve different mission and driving profile within one vehicle platform (Hybrid power source flexible design through modularity and scalability: battery-FC-H2 tanks (performance, energy, components lifetime); Cost-efficient solutions for dedicated missions, TCO optimisation; Prototype: Pure BEV with hydrogen FC range extended for long haul use case. Energy mix 50/50 battery/fuel cell in design basis case, 1.5 kWh/km equal to 10 kg H2/100 km.); 
  2. Flexible vehicle platform based on 3-axle tractor (VECTO 12) (Traction power 300-350 kW (VECTO 10/12 and capacity to scale also beyond (40 – 76t); Multi-use chassis for various configurations (VECTO class and superstructures); Prototype powertrain specification: battery 500-600 kWh, FC 100-140 kW, H2 capacity 35-45 kg (350 bar); Extra space in prototype available (length, height) from Finnish regulations; Modularity of hybrid powertrain battery/FC power and capacity combinations; Battery: technology and optimisation for various FC hybridisation degrees; FC: technology and design optimisation for various hybridisation degrees; Optimisation of thermal and lifetime management for various hybridisation degrees; Hybrid BE-FC powertrain control, energy management and operation optimisation through modelling and DT. 

Scenario P1.1 Industrial prototyping demo: 

  • Scenario: Variable operations in the closed industrial site to support prototype development; 
  • Mission: Short-cycle operations with varying GVW up to 40 tons transporting bulk and cargo. 
  • Anticipated schedule and rotation: Operation in 8 h shifts, charging during loading (20 min) or unloading (45 min) 

The dependence of the feasibility of fast charging on the development of battery packs capable of withstanding 1MW charging under short duration (20-40 minutes) and temperature nonuniformity (less than 2 degrees C for a 600kWh pack) is due to the proposed modular approach in which internal temperature, which have high impacts on the battery’s performance, charging profiles and service life, need to be properly manage into the packs for keep thermically stable the cells of which it is composed. During charge, the internal cell resistance causes a slight temperature rise that compensates for some of the cold. Lithium-ion with prolonged exposure to heat reduces longevity of the batteries. Since capacity loss at elevated temperature is in direct relationship with state-of-charge (SoC). In case there is temperature nonuniformity, batteries pack will start degradation and also in different paces.

Scenario P1.2 Daily operation demo:

  • Route: Port of Helsinki (Vuosaari) – Helsinki region terminals; 
  • Scenario: Operations with a 40t semi-trailer from
    the port logistics terminal and deliveries to customers in Helsinki region; 
  • Mission: Long-Haul Transport with GVW
    up to 40 tons. The regional use cases will complement the long-haul use case. This ensures high utilization of the
    HDV during the pilot. 
  • Operator: TRJ; Driving profile: regional missions maximum 500 km per round trip from the
    port logistics area.; 
  • Charging & Refueling Solution Specification & Description: Anticipated scenarios are based
    on fully electric operation with fast charging in the port logistics area in the charging hub, which is the same as for
    the long-haul use case P2.3

Scenario P1.3: Long haul: 

  • Routes: Finland / Vuosaari (Helsinki) – Jyväskylä; 
  • Scenario: The envisioned scenario is round-trip of 520 km starting from the port of Helsinki to Jyväskylä. 
  • Mission: Long-Haul Transport with GVW up to 40 tons. 
  • Anticipated schedule and rotation: several hours break available between missions in Jyväskylä. Time reserved for H2 refilling per for r-HDV); Anticipated charging time available between missions in Jyväskylä. Time reserved for H2 refilling per round trip: ~20 min. 
  • Piloting: Vuosaari-Jyväskylä, for 8 months duration, covering both summer and Nordic winter 
  • Operator: TRJ
  • Driving ProfilePerformance test: VECTO Long-Haul cycle 750 km (design bases for r-HDV) 
  • Charging/Refueling Solution Specification & Description: Fast charging solution, interface, plugs: Kempower 

Charging specification for the long-haul pilot use case: Charging at both ends enables fully electric operation of long-haul missions (b-HDV scenario). The northern end in Jyväskylä has a minimum of 1-2 hours of charging time (specification 200 kW charger power), whereas the southern end in the port of Helsinki has 20-40 min of charging time (1 MW charger power). For the regional use case: fast charging at TEN-T harbour side will be used to support b-HDV scenario.H2 refuelling infrastructure in Lahti area along the core TEN-T corridor and the longhaul route. Small mobile container-based refilling station serving the TEN-T corridor and local service provider engaged. The H2 recharging infrastructure based on the AFIR implementation will be in place from 2025 supporting the TEN-T core network. The SISU truck will be demonstrated for 8 months under operating conditions, driving on average 60.000 km/year, and expecting an 90% vehicle availability and targeting 8000 km between refuelling and recharging. 

KPIs with Targeted Values: 
  • KPI-1: Operational range 750 km (VECTO long haul or equivalent) @GVW 40t in range-extending mode; 
  • KPI-2: Energy efficiency minimum 82% in BEV mode; 
  • KPI-3: Energy efficiency minimum 44% in FC-RE charge-sustaining; 
  • KPI-4: Vehicle availability enables average 500 km daily in long haul missions; 
  • KPI-5: Minimum 400 km range recovery in 45 min for charging (efficiency >80%) and H2 refilling; 
  • KPI-6: Delivery load capacity minimum 90% of conventional.